India is a democratic country with sovereign socialist secular parliamentary form of government. As it is a republic country, it is governed under the supervision of Indian constitution. This constitution was adopted by the constituent assembly way back on 26th of November, 1949. But it came in to effect only on 26th of January, 1950, when India declared it self as a republic.
The constitution forms the backbone of the nation and defines the fundamental principles, the prerogatives and the fundamental rights and duties of its individuals. It also clearly outlines the power and duties of the government in fact; the constitution is a testimony and provides assurance to its citizens of equality, liberty and justice. The constitution of India is huge and is considered to be one of the longest written. Further it contains 359 articles, 12 schedules and 83 amendments.
Indian constitution makes way for a parliamentary form of government, with certain powers and a federal type of structure. The executive head of the constitution for the union of India is the president, who is also the supreme commander of all the 3 forces. The article 79 of the Indian constitution clearly mentions that the president and the two house Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha forms the council of the parliament. As per article 74(1) of the constitution, there should be a council of ministers with the prime minister acting as it head, who in turn advices the president. As a matter of fact, the real power lies with the council of ministers.
It is the council of ministers who is responsible for the Lok Sabha or the house of the people. The union of India consists of several states and each of these states has a legislative assembly. There are also some states that have an upper house also called state legislative council. A governor is assigned to each state, appointed by the president and acts as the executive power. The chief minister along with the council of ministers executes the functions with the advice from the governor.
It is the Indian constitution that distributes legislative powers between the parliament and state legislatures. As per the entries in the seventh schedule, the distribution of powers is done. However, the residuary powers still remain with the parliament. This is how the Indian constitution works.